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This book contains a collection of articles on issues related to the functioning of Silesia as a region from the end of War World II to the present day. In the book researchers have tried to analyse the function of five basic factors that helped determine the region’s coherency after 1945. According to overall project’s assumptions, these were: 1) changes in the administrative framework of the functioning of Silesian communities; 2) the elements of the economy that strengthened or weakened the region’s coherency; 3) the way in which the division of the community that inhabited Silesia into a rural and an urban population functioned, two groups with different social statuses, goals and cultural backgrounds; 4) thorough transformations of the ethnic structure of the Oder River Basin which took place after 1945 and significantly contributed to the people's sense of affiliation to the regional community; 5) the complex issue of cultural identity or – the cultural identity of the inhabitants of the region and particular local communities. This consistent reasoning concerning a specific period in the history of Silesia is complemented by an attempt to recognise changes in our area of interest which took place between the mid-12th and early 21st century. They show the flexible, relative nature of how a regional community functioned in the European political and cultural space by using Silesia as an example. Silesia seems to have entered the 21st century as a region – is it still one region? – split by political decisions and socio-economic processes. And yet, did the bonds of tradition and the cultural heritage of the whole region prove to be stronger than political pursuits to construct separate administrative units? Let us see!